Inleiding aan Militere Inligting Korps - Introduction to Military Intelligence Corps
Extracts from the book
'South African Intelligence Units of the Armed Forces'
by Colonel D. Wall MSM, MMM
POST WAR REORGANISATION
In 1957 the Defence Act (Act no 44) ensured the creation of the South African Defence Force (SADF). This heralded a new era in the military history of the country. In 1961 the (All Arms of Service) Division Military Intelligence (DMI) was established. Several officers were sent on course to Britain, France, Germany and the USA. This was the first time South Africa became involved in strategic intelligence activities. In fact DMI was responsible for all strategic intelligence activities. Elements of DMI were involved in tactical intelligence. In 1964 DMI became an independent division of the SADF and fell under the command of the then Commandant General of the SADF. In the following year DMI became a staff unit under the command of the Chief of the Defence Force. In 1967 it fell directly under the command of the Chief of the Defence Force. In September 1968 the Bureau for State Security (BOSS) was formed. It absorbed elements of DMI. However DMI remained as such and conducted counter intelligence activities within the military. In 1969 DMI saw more reorganisation and BOSS was thus formed as a completely civilian organisation. In 1972 the results of the Potgieter Commission into the effective co-ordination between state departments resulted in the promulgation of the Act on Security Intelligence and the State Security Council and its consequences were effected. Thus the various mandates were determined for each of the intelligence organisations within the country. In 1978 BOSS changed its name to the Department of National Security and then underwent another name change to National Intelligence Service (NIS) in 1980. Today it is known as National Intelligence Agency (NIA).
In 1974 the SADF had a review at its structure. The President was overall commander in chief. Under his command the State Security Council was formed to co-ordinate all intelligence activities of the country. This council reported to cabinet and had access to all intelligence from the following organisations:
Dept of of Foreign Affairs.
Note that DMI was considered the senior military intelligence component and as such was responsible for strategic intelligence. Each of the arms of service had their own intelligence compartment and they were responsible for operational and tactical intelligence. The army structure (as were the air force and navy) was based on General Staff (G S) compartments as follows:
The SAAF used the designation AS 1 to 5 and the SA Navy NS 1 to 5.
Generally, the commando members were only found in the counter insurgency role although there were the odd exceptions. DMI remained under direct command of the Chief of the Defence Force. It continued to be staffed by personnel from all arms of service and was totally independent of GS2 as it was a formation as such. At this time infantry officers were trained as intelligence officers at the School of Infantry at Outshoorn. Infantry officers had the choice of either becoming an infantry platoon commander, an infantry transport officer or an intelligence officer. All three roles thus being conducted by the infantry. On 2 June 1975 DMI was permanently deployed to Fort Klapperkop and utilised the buildings of the Radcliffe Observatory at that site. The SA Military Intelligence College was also established at this site. A white paper on defence was brought out in 1977 and this emphasised the need for an effective military intelligence organisation.
At this time the war in SWA was escalating and there was a distinct need for military intelligence at tactical, operational and strategic levels. DMI officers officially met with members of the USA Defence Intelligence Agency at the beginning of President Reagan's term of office and relations with the USA improved from an 'exchange of information' point of view. Relations with Britain also improved and both the USA and Britain assisted with information and diplomatic communications with Zambia, Angola, Tanzania and Mozambique. DMI established itself in northern SWA and made close contact with UNITA. Soon DMI was responsible for the training of UNITA soldiers in a variety of tasks ranging from intelligence work to infantry operations. Support conduits were established for the supply of equipment and information so that UNITA could conduct operations. DMI headquarters were established in central Pretoria and offices were opened in the Western Province, Durban and other major centres in South Africa to facilitate the activities of the formation. DM1 fell under direct command of CSADF and its commander was known as Chief of Defence Staff Intelligence (CSI).
With the radical changes made within the Defence Force as a result of the 1994 amalgamation SADF, MK, APLA and TBVC forces, the intelligence structures were also changed. Defence Intelligence was formed as an overall organisation with sole responsibility for the conduct of Intelligence / Counter Intelligence throughout the National Defence Force (SANDF). It was formed around the old DMI and began an incorporation exercise to get everybody who was in the intelligence environment to become one organisational Defence Intelligence (Dl). In the changes the SA Navy and SAMHS handed over their personnel and responsibilities in total to Dl. The SAAF retained their squadron I Os as well as an intelligence capability at Air Force HQ which fell under the wing of the newly formed Joint Operations Division. The army underwent changes and the Intelligence Formation was formed. It was responsible for 1 Tac Int Regt and theTac Int School, as well as those Intelligence Officers at RJTFs. In other words the Intelligence Formation provided training and personnel for Intelligence actions at tactical level.There is still much work to be done to get all Intelligence / Counter Intelligence personnel under the auspices of DI and to function as the organisation effectively should.
THE SA ARMY INTELLIGENCE CORPS
In 1980 the army once again re-established a specific corps to conduct tactical and operational intelligence activities. It was known as the SA Intelligence Corps and was based to a certain extent on the assistance of several ex Rhodesian Intelligence Corps members who had emigrated to South Africa. A school for the training of Intelligence Corps personnel was required and was established in Diskobolos on the outskirts of Kimberley in the same base as Danie Theron Combat School (DTCS) and 11th Commando. The DTCS was established in 1968 at an infantry training centre for part time commando officers and NCOs and only Counter Insurgency doctrine was taught. 11th Commando was established within the same base in 1973 to accommodate the expansion of the training wing of DTCS. 11th Commando, as a training wing of DTCS, was disbanded in 1982 and on the 21st June of the same year the SA Intelligence School (SA INT S) was established and took over the 11th Commando lines. It retained the name 11th Commando for its base. DTCS continued to train commando members. The SA Intelligence School adopted the same shoulder flash that was worn by 11th Commando - the flaming sword on a black background, out of a sense of perpetuity. This sword depicts the sword of the Apostle Peter who guards the entrance of Heaven and prevents undesirable people from entering there. The national service system was in full swing by this time and the SA INT S was training other ranks, NCOs and officers for both the national service element as well as the permanent force and part time forces (commando and citizen force).
ESTABLISHMENT OF THE SA ARMY INTELLIGENCE SCHOOL
The SA INT S was responsible for training of both permanent force, citizen force and national servicemen in the following fields:
Intelligence: Collecting and processing
At this time the SA INT SCHOOL consisted of three wings:
Course Wing. Responsible for conducting courses in basic intelligence, collection, processing, counter intelligence and Comops. All the courses except for basic intelligence were 'Part One' courses for NCOs and officers (conducted separately) and lasted six weeks. Senior NCOs / WOS and officers of the rank 'major' went on to do the 'Part Two' courses in the same subjects.
Support Wing. This wing supported all training activities and included LWT, QM stores, pay and admin and the like.
Junior Leader Wing. Responsible for training all junior leaders.
Battle Handling Course. This is mentioned separately as it is designed to train senior NCOs and officers in the practicalities of conventional warfare from an Intelligence Corps point of view. It culminates in practical exercises at the SA Army Battle School at Lohatla.
Squadron Training. In the tradition of mounted units of the past, the SA INT C utilised the term squadron as opposed to companies. The following squadrons existed and were responsible for training:
Unit HO Sqn. Consisted of permanent staff from SA INT S from the commander
E Sqn. Responsible for training Comops specialists.
Note: Based on Michael Huxtable's notes.
THE SOUTH WEST AFRICA CAMPAIGN
SA INT C personnel were deployed to the various sectors which covered the entire country. Sector 10 HQ was in Oshakati and was based on a Brigade HQ. The HQ consisted of the standard compartments as mentioned in paragraph 25 but at the appropriate level. The intelligence section was under the command of a Lieutenant Colonel and was subdivided into the following sub sections:
Collection. Intelligence collectors deployed in small groups and operated throughout the operational area making contact with the local people and building up source networks (HUMINT). As the war progressed more sophisticated battlefield surveillance equipment was provided and the collection teams manned mobile and semi static observation posts throughout the area in conjunction with their tasks in maintaining source networks. Specialist interrogators were also part of this sub section and were deployed at the POW cages as well as being deployed on patrols.
Processing. The processing sub section were responsible for manning the intelligence office and for the collation, evaluation, analysis and dissemination of processed information.
Counter Intelligence. This sub section was responsible for physical military security as well as the prevention of enemy intelligence agencies collecting information on the SADF.
Civic Action / Comops. This sub section worked on its own and was responsible for the positive build up of relations between the military and the population. This was done by means of deploying SA INT C national service soldiers who were qualified mechanics. teachers and farmers to teach the locals new skills. This sub section had a specific sub sections whose tasks included a clandestine propaganda section which was very active throughout Sector 10 and the southern parts of Angola. Each infantry battalion (61 Mechanised Inf Bn, 32 SA1 Bn, 51 SAI Bn, 52 SAI Bn, 53 SAI Bn, 54 SAI Bn, 101 SAI Bn etc) also had a small intelligence section manned by SA INT C members, which was responsible for collecting information so that the battalion had immediate information to plan on and to work on. The intelligence staff of these units were responsible for the intelligence effort for all the external operations that were launched into Angola against SWAPO's armed wing PLAN as well as the Angolan armed forces, the Cuban and Russian troops who interfered on behalf of the Angolans. Full scale operations were launched and intelligence officers in conjunction with Special Forces were the "first in and the last out" in order to Electronic Warfare Section. Intelligence processing specialists were attached to the SA Corps of Signals, 5 Signals Regiment E W Troops in SWA that were responsible for the processing and dissemination of intelligence derived from E W wireless intercepts. This was an invaluable source of information and assisted the war effort greatly. It must be noted that this same function was also conducted within South Africa and continues to be done so today.
Special Forces Intelligence Section. Mention must also be made of the Special Forces elements in SWA. 5 Recce Regt had a permanent base at the Ondangwa SAAF base which was known as "Fort Rev". This base accommodated one SF commando of 5 Recce Regt, based at Phalaborwa in South Africa and it had its own intelligence component which was responsible for all intelligence related activities peculiar to the Special Forces. The origins of the CCB are from Special Forces Headquarters and was developed from what was known as Project Barnacle. It was established as a covert and independent organisation to collect and supply information in the various front line states of Southern Africa as well as for internal operations.
MODERN DAY SA INTELLIGENCE CORPS DEVELOPMENTS
Int Corps personnel were deployed throughout South Africa and also in SWA for that war. The intelligence function is considered as a command function within the military and therefore intelligence personnel are to be found throughout. For the purpose of this document the deployments have been subdivided into areas and tasks. South African Internal Structures. Members of the SA INT C were staffed at Army Headquarters where the GS2 was to be found. GS2 and his staff had a coordinating role to play and also processed and disseminated intelligence that had been received from units throughout the country. SAAF and Navy Intelligence sections were to be found at each air force and naval base. The following sub sections existed throughout at all levels and units:
At each of the headquarters of the conventional Divisions and their brigades the same structure was to be found. The SA INT C personnel are a mix of full time force regulars and part time force reserve members. Each part time force regiment has its own intelligence section manned by part time force members.
The territorial command system was established before the Second World War to maintain the integrity and safety of South Africa. By the mid 1980's there were nine such commands including SWA which was considered one of the territorial commands. These commands were based on a geographic area and were responsible for protecting that area. In the 1980's some of the commands were subdivided and this resulted in the establishment of further commands in their own right. This was known as the Area Defence system. All of the commands have been disbanded and have been replaced by five Regional Joint Task Forces. Each RJTF has an intelligence section which is responsible for collection, processing and counter intelligence at tactical level.
Under each Command there were a number of Group headquarters which also have their own intelligence sections. These intelligence sections were at the forefront of intelligence collection for the internal unrest. Some Group HQs had their own forefront of intelligence collection for the internal unrest and had their own processing capability for local operations, but all information was sent to their respective Commands for collation and further processing and dissemination to Army Headquarters on a daily basis. The most active Group HQs were in the provinces of Natal, Eastern Transvaal, Eastern Cape and Western Cape.
THE TRANSFORMATION CHANGES OF 1994 AND ONWARDS
With the new government coming to power, a restructuring of the entire intelligence community of the country took place again. The National Defence Force came into being and had a direct effect on intelligence in the military. The old DMI organisation became known as Defence Intelligence (DI) and absorbed a large number of personnel from the SA Army Intelligence Corps as well as from Navy and Air Force intelligence. DI has its own structure designed around the disciplines as discussed previously. All army corps have formed their own formations which are responsible for the day to day administration of their own units and personnel. Thus the Infantry formation is responsible for all infantry battalions and units including Group Headquarters. The formation is responsible for force preparation (training) and career management of its units. The formations supply the Chief of Joint Operations with forces for operations to be conducted both internally and externally. In line with the establishment of a formation per corps the Intelligence Formation was also formed.
The Intelligence Formation.
In 1998 the SANDF was in the process of undergoing transformation as a result of the new dispensation derived from the 1994 elections. In this regard the GS2 compartment was closed down and a new structure put in its place. Most other corps also underwent the same changes in structure. Thus the Intelligence Formation was established. Its responsibility is to conduct the day to day training and administration of the corps deployed in the army structure. On the 4th April 2000 the Intelligence Formation was renamed SA Army Intelligence Formation. It has under its command the following units:
The School of Intelligence.
The School of Intelligence was now placed under command of the Intelligence Formation in the army hierarchy. It is under the command of a colonel and is currently based in the old 3 SA Infantry Bn lines at Potchefstroom and responsible for the conduct of all intelligence and counter intelligence training at the tactical and operational level. The regiment is based on an infantry mechanised infantry battalion and utilises the RATEL IFV as a basis for its vehicles. For obvious reasons there are also specialist type vehicles for specialist tasks.
OBSOLETE PART TIME INTELLIGENCE UNITS OF THE ARMY
Three intelligence units were planned for establishment in South Africa to formerly structure the citizen force members of the corps. They were loosely based on an infantry battalion but with squadrons instead of companies. Each unit had a collection squadron, a processing infantry battalion but with squadrons instead of companies. Each unit had a collection squadron, a processing squadron and a support squadron. They were known as 1, 2, and 3 Intelligence Units. All three units were eventually disbanded when the Permanent Force Intelligence Regt was established. Those part timers who wished to continue to serve were allocated posts in the Intelligence Regt as it consisted of both full time and part time members.
1) Intelligence Unit. Based in Nelspruit in the Eastern Transvaal (now Mpumalanga). No official arm flash. Use the standard beret badge.
2) Intelligence Unit. Based in Springs on the outskirts of Johannesburg. 2 Int Unit eventually became known as 2 Intelligence Regiment and unofficially adopted a shoulder flash depicting a brass bat eared fox mounted on a black enamel shield with crossed swords in the background and featured the Roman numeral II above. Not many of these shoulder flashes were made and they are highly sought after. No 2 Intelligence Regt also adopted a brass bat eared fox as their beret badge. When field dress was worn a blackened web belt and black boots were also worn (as opposed to a brass bat eared fox as their beret badge). When field dress was worn a blackened web belt and black boots were also worn (as opposed to a green web belt and brown boots).
3 Intelligence Unit. Never existed. On paper only. No further information. This unit appears to have been intended to be based in Pietersburg but this cannot be confirmed.
World War 2 Insignia
Personnel wore the insignia of the British Intelligence Corps unless they wanted to maintain anonymity for security reasons and then wore the General Service Badge which was a springbuck within a circle featuring the words "South Africa / SuidAfrika".
Corps Cap Badge. A chrome bat eared fox with the motto 'Exploratio' beneath. The motto implies the exploration for, or investigation of, information. The bat eared fox was chosen as it represents a wily nocturnal animal that does not rest.
Corps Beret Badge. A chrome bat eared fox without motto was worn up to April 2000. It was worn above a coloured corps bar consisting of red, white and green from viewers left to right. The colours represent the artillery, armour and infantry respectively as these are the primary users of intelligence. It is important to note that the very first coloured bar to be issued was red, white and black but this was discontinued almost immediately and black was replaced by green.
Red - staff members.
School Beret Badge. Flaming sword within a wreath with the motto 'Lux ad Gladium' below. A piece of red felt was worn as a badge backing. The motto is adopted from 11 Commando's motto which was 'Per Gladium'.
SA INT School Guard Unit Badge.
At one time the commanding officer of the SA INT School decided to issue the guards with a white pith helmet. A larger than normal chrome bat eared fox badge appeared to be worn on the right hand side of the helmet. There are examples of two of these helmets in the mess which have the standard arm flash on both sides of the helmets. In similar vein a slouch hat was also worn for a short while with and upturned brim.
SA INT School Arm Flash. Flaming sword on a black background, the old 11th Commando flash. Prior to this a cloth flash was worn. It also featured the flaming sword, but was on a green background.
SA INT School Affiliation Badge. A miniature version of the SA INT S arm flash is worn on a leather fob on the right pocket. These are worn by officers above the rank of lieutenant colonel and by warrant officers class 1 when they affiliate to SA INT S. Officers and warrant officers in these rank groups are also entitled to affiliate to other units of their choice depending on their career background (previous units with which they served).
SAINT School Squadron Insignia. Originally worn on one piece training overalls and nutria uniform to indicate which squadron the wearer belonged. The first version was in cloth and the second and final version in "tupperware" rubberised material. The emblems feature the corps colours and follow the standard squadron/company insignia.
1 Tactical Intelligence Regiment. 1 Tac Int Regt wore a circular badge in antiqued white metal. It depicted an eagle superimposed over a world globe with the motto Vine Vidi underneath, on the rim. Their shoulder flash had the same design and was made in enamel and rubberised "Tupperware". This badge has been withdrawn and the Regiment have reverted to wearing the Jackal beret badge.
Corps Lanyard. In 1992 the dress regulations of the SA Army were updated and all corps were authorised to wear a lanyard depicting their corps colours. The SA INT C lanyard consists of oblique stripes in red, white and green and is worn on the right shoulder. The SA INT C is one of only a few corps that wear the lanyard on the right shoulder. This is due to the fact that the corps is considered a mounted one based on the close identification with Anglo Boer War scout Danie Theron, who was always on horseback. Another consideration was the fact that the British cavalry always wore their lanyards SA Int C lanyard on the right shoulder as it interfered with the use of a lance when in combat. Thus the tradition comes from both sides who took part in the Anglo Boer War!
Corps Stable Belt. The corps stable belt depicts the corps colours (red, white thin dividing stripe and green) and is worn with the red uppermost. The stable belt is fastened at the front with a chrome buckle on which is mounted a corps cap badge with a red cloth under felt.
SAAF Intelligence Sections. This element of the SAAF provides tactical intelligence for the planning of air operations. There are intelligence officers based at Air Force headquarters and at squadron level for this purpose. Squadron Intelligence Officers are responsible for briefing and debriefing aircrews on a variety of subjects, including, the enemy, terrain, weather and infrastructure. They maintain an "air picture" and monitor the threat from enemy aircraft. Their expertise also includes detailed knowledge of enemy aircraft, the various radar facilities as well as ground to air weapons that may pose a threat to own aircraft when operating over enemy territory. Closely aligned to the intelligence staff are those who are responsible for electronic warfare in the SAAF. EW operators fly with 60 Sqn Boeing 707 aircraft. FW operators provide information based on electronic interception and monitoring / jamming of enemy radar and radio capabilities. Air Force intelligence personnel wear a diamond shaped emblem featuring a stylised letter "I" over a wreath. The metal badge is Air Force intelligence personnel wear a diamond shaped emblem featuring a stylised letter "I" over a wreath. The metal badge is bimetal and there is a smaller version for mess dress. A cloth version exists for field dress it is also bi-colour and is on a blue square background.
Joint Air Reconnaissance Intelligence Centre (JARIC). This unit is, in reality, part of the SAAF. It is based at Air Force Base Waterkloof in Pretoria and is responsible for the processing of information obtained from aerial photography (IMINT). JARIC provides valuable intelligence from the interpretation of aerial photography and using the techniques available to them, can give detailed and accurate measurements of targets as well as their composition and detailed and accurate measurements of targets as well as their composition and recent usage. JARIC is traditionally staffed by specialists from both the army as well as the SAAF. This allows army photo interpreters (SA Army Int Corps and DMI) to be a link between JARIC at AFB Waterkloof and the various units on the ground. Air Photo Interpretation units are also deployed at Tac cal HQs of the army when on operations or on exercises. They are generally deployed at forward airfields and provide an immediate service for the forces. JARIC is also responsible for training of Air Photo Interpreters and run their own courses in this regard. Army personnel wore an arm flash featuring two eagles heads facing outwards in black and white.
Military Health Intelligence. The SAMHS does not have any intelligence officers in its organisation at all any more. Those Military Health Intelligence personnel who did serve with SAMHS have been transferred to Defence Intelligence and continue to wear Medic uniforms SA Navy Intelligence Sections. SAN Intelligence personnel provided intelligence of a maritime nature for naval operations. It must be mentioned that Navy Intelligence within the SA Navy does not exist any more. All Navy Intelligence posts were transferred over to Defence Intelligence after 1994 and Defence Intelligence personnel (some of whom wear Navy uniforms) are now responsible for this function. Military Health Intelligence personnel wear the Admin Support Staff badge above the right pocket to identify their Officers and Warrant Officers do not wear a distinctive badge. Chief Petty Officers wore a collar badge depicting a dolphin and the lion and "bundle of sticks" emblem on their tunics. Ratings wore a cloth badge on the left arm featuring the same dolphin. A series of one or two stars above and below indicate the level of training. Instructors wear a dolphin with the lion and "bundle of sticks" above and two stars below. The cloth badge is in blue embroidered on white for summer uniforms and in saffron (gold) on black for winter.
Cap / Beret Badge. The badge of DMI was based on a front facing owl with the motto "Vigilans et Science" below. The motivation for choosing an owl was the perception that owls were wide-awake and wise. Variations in metals exist and badges were originally made from white metal (three tail feathers) and then from chrome plated brass (four tail feathers).
Instructors Badge. Instructors wear a small chrome owl within a laurel wreath emblem above the right pocket while serving at SAMIC.
SAMIC Shoulder Flashes
Chief of Defence Staff Intelligence. Green background on which is a SANDF castle in yellow with crossed swords behind. Roman numeral II below all of this. There are several slight variants of this flash. Approved in May 1977 and now obsolete.
Military Intelligence Headquarters. Front facing silver owl with crossed swords in background on a black shield. Now obsolete.
Director General Military Intelligence. Frontfacing silver owl on a black shield. Now obsolete.
Military Intelligence Division Cape Regional Office. Front facing silver owl on a black shield with outline of Table Mountain on top horizontal segment of the shield. Now obsolete.
SA Military Intelligence College. A shoulder flash depicting the Southern Cross star constellation on a vertically divided black and white background. This badge was approved in 1984. Their affiliation badge is a miniature of this same badge worn on a leather fob on the right pocket.
SA Military Intelligence College. Same pattern as the shoulder flash embroidered on a black cloth square.
General Tracksuit Badge. An owl in white with black highlights embroidered on a white cloth square.
Lanyards. All DMI personnel wear a black and white striped lanyard on the left arm. There are three versions of this.
First Pattern. A thin lanyard. This version was in keeping with all other corps lanyards and was worn by all ranks from NCO upwards.
Second Pattern. Narrow spaced stripes.Third Pattern. Wider spaced stripes.
Stable Belt. The stable belt consists of a black belt with a thin white stripe on the outer edges. It is fastened by a chrome buckle on which a cap/beret badge is mounted. The badge is backed by a piece of black plastic in the shape of the outline of the owl.